## Physics Frameworks( 2006)

1.

1.1 Compare and contrast vector quantities (e.g., displacement, velocity, acceleration force, linear momentum) and scalar quantities (e.g., distance, speed, energy, mass, work).

1.2 Distinguish between displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and acceleration. Solve problems involving displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and constant acceleration.

1.3 Create and interpret graphs of 1-dimensional motion, such as position vs. time, distance vs. time, speed vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time where acceleration is constant.

1.4 Interpret and apply Newton’s three laws of motion.

1.5 Use a free-body force diagram to show forces acting on a system consisting of a pair of interacting objects. For a diagram with only co-linear forces, determine the net force acting on a system and between the objects.

1.6 Distinguish qualitatively between static and kinetic friction, and describe their effects on the motion of objects.

1.7 Describe Newton’s law of universal gravitation in terms of the attraction between two objects, their masses, and the distance between them.

1.8 Describe conceptually the forces involved in circular motion.

2.

2.1 Interpret and provide examples that illustrate the law of conservation of energy.

2.2 Interpret and provide examples of how energy can be converted from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa.

2.3 Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively how work can be expressed as a change in mechanical energy.

2.4 Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively the concept of power as work done per unit time.

2.5 Provide and interpret examples showing that linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity, and is always conserved (law of conservation of momentum). Calculate the momentum of an object.

3.

3.1 Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation.

3.2 Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached.

3.3 Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships among evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming.

3.4 Explain the relationships among temperature changes in a substance, the amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance.

4.

4.1 Describe the measurable properties of waves (velocity, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, period) and explain the relationships among them. Recognize examples of simple harmonic motion.

4.2 Distinguish between mechanical and electromagnetic waves.

4.3 Distinguish between the two types of mechanical waves, transverse and longitudinal.

4.4 Describe qualitatively the basic principles of reflection and refraction of waves.

4.5 Recognize that mechanical waves generally move faster through a solid than through a liquid and faster through a liquid than through a gas.

4.6 Describe the apparent change in frequency of waves due to the motion of a source or a receiver (the Doppler effect).

5.

5.1 Recognize that an electric charge tends to be static on insulators and can move on and in conductors. Explain that energy can produce a separation of charges.

5.2 Develop qualitative and quantitative understandings of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them (Ohm’s law).

5.3 Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in both series and parallel circuits. Recognize symbols and understand the functions of common circuit elements (battery, connecting wire, switch, fuse, resistance) in a schematic diagram.

5.4 Describe conceptually the attractive or repulsive forces between objects relative to their charges and the distance between them (Coulomb’s law).

5.5 Explain how electric current is a flow of charge caused by a potential difference (voltage), and how power is equal to current multiplied by voltage.

5.6 Recognize that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces. Recognize that the interplay of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and other technologies.

6.

6.1 Recognize that electromagnetic waves are transverse waves and travel at the speed of light through a vacuum.

6.2 Describe the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of frequency and wavelength, and identify the locations of radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet), ultraviolet rays, x-rays, and gamma rays on the spectrum.

**Motion and Forces***Central**Concept:*Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion of most objects.1.1 Compare and contrast vector quantities (e.g., displacement, velocity, acceleration force, linear momentum) and scalar quantities (e.g., distance, speed, energy, mass, work).

1.2 Distinguish between displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and acceleration. Solve problems involving displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and constant acceleration.

1.3 Create and interpret graphs of 1-dimensional motion, such as position vs. time, distance vs. time, speed vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time where acceleration is constant.

1.4 Interpret and apply Newton’s three laws of motion.

1.5 Use a free-body force diagram to show forces acting on a system consisting of a pair of interacting objects. For a diagram with only co-linear forces, determine the net force acting on a system and between the objects.

1.6 Distinguish qualitatively between static and kinetic friction, and describe their effects on the motion of objects.

1.7 Describe Newton’s law of universal gravitation in terms of the attraction between two objects, their masses, and the distance between them.

1.8 Describe conceptually the forces involved in circular motion.

2.

**Conservation of Energy and Momentum**

*Central Concept*: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide alternate approaches to predict and describe the movement of objects.2.1 Interpret and provide examples that illustrate the law of conservation of energy.

2.2 Interpret and provide examples of how energy can be converted from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa.

2.3 Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively how work can be expressed as a change in mechanical energy.

2.4 Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively the concept of power as work done per unit time.

2.5 Provide and interpret examples showing that linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity, and is always conserved (law of conservation of momentum). Calculate the momentum of an object.

3.

**Heat and Heat Transfer***Central**Concept:*Heat is energy that is transferred by the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.3.1 Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation.

3.2 Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached.

3.3 Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships among evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming.

3.4 Explain the relationships among temperature changes in a substance, the amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance.

4.

**Waves***Central Concept*: Waves carry energy from place to place without the transfer of matter.4.1 Describe the measurable properties of waves (velocity, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, period) and explain the relationships among them. Recognize examples of simple harmonic motion.

4.2 Distinguish between mechanical and electromagnetic waves.

4.3 Distinguish between the two types of mechanical waves, transverse and longitudinal.

4.4 Describe qualitatively the basic principles of reflection and refraction of waves.

4.5 Recognize that mechanical waves generally move faster through a solid than through a liquid and faster through a liquid than through a gas.

4.6 Describe the apparent change in frequency of waves due to the motion of a source or a receiver (the Doppler effect).

5.

**Electromagnetism**

*Central Concept*: Stationary and moving charged particles result in the phenomena known as electricity and magnetism*.*5.1 Recognize that an electric charge tends to be static on insulators and can move on and in conductors. Explain that energy can produce a separation of charges.

5.2 Develop qualitative and quantitative understandings of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them (Ohm’s law).

5.3 Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in both series and parallel circuits. Recognize symbols and understand the functions of common circuit elements (battery, connecting wire, switch, fuse, resistance) in a schematic diagram.

5.4 Describe conceptually the attractive or repulsive forces between objects relative to their charges and the distance between them (Coulomb’s law).

5.5 Explain how electric current is a flow of charge caused by a potential difference (voltage), and how power is equal to current multiplied by voltage.

5.6 Recognize that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces. Recognize that the interplay of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and other technologies.

6.

**Electromagnetic Radiation***Central Concept*: Oscillating electric or magnetic fields can generate electromagnetic waves over a wide spectrum.6.1 Recognize that electromagnetic waves are transverse waves and travel at the speed of light through a vacuum.

6.2 Describe the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of frequency and wavelength, and identify the locations of radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet), ultraviolet rays, x-rays, and gamma rays on the spectrum.

## Draft Massachusetts Physics Frameworks( 2013)

**Introductory Physics HS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions**

**HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that**

**Newton’s second law of motion is a mathematical model describing motion and change in motion (acceleration) of objects with mass when acted on by a net force. Use free-body force diagrams and algebraic expressions representing Newton’s laws of motion to predict changes to velocity and acceleration for an object moving in one dimension in various situations.**[Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force. Predictions of changes in motion can be made numerically, graphically, and algebraically using basic equations for velocity, average speed and constant acceleration.]

**HS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to show that the total momentum of a system of interacting objects moving in one dimension is conserved when there is no net force on the system.**[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the qualitative meaning of the conservation of momentum and the quantitative understanding of the conservation of linear momentum in interactions involving elastic and inelastic collisions between two objects in one dimension.]

**HS-PS2-3. Apply scientific principles of motion and momentum to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the**

**force on a macroscopic object**

**during a collision.***[Clarification Statement: Both qualitative evaluations and algebraic manipulations may be used.]

**HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to both qualitatively and quantitatively describe and predict the**

**effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.**[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the relative changes when distance, mass or charge, or both are changed; as well as the relative strength comparison between the two forces.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects and does not include permittivity of free space.]

**HS-PS2-5. Provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.**

**HS-PS2-9(MA). Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in both series and parallel circuits. Use appropriate instruments to measure the voltage across and current through a resistor. Use Ohm’s Law to determine the resistance in a circuit when given the voltage and current.**

**HS-PS3-1. Use algebraic expressions and the principle of energy conservation to calculate the change in energy of one component of a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) of the system, as well as the total energy of the system including any energy entering or leaving the system, is known. Identify any transformations from one form of energy to another, including thermal, kinetic, gravitational, magnetic, or electrical energy, in the system.**[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two or three components; and to thermal energy, kinetic energy, and/or the energies in gravitational, magnetic, or electric fields.]

**HS-PS3-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles and objects or energy stored in fields.**[Clarification Statement: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, the gravitational potential energy stored due to position of an object above the earth, and the energy stored (electrical potential) of a charged object’s position within an electrical field. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.]

**HS-PS3-3. Design and evaluate a device that works within given constraints to convert**

**one form of energy into another form of energy.***[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of devices. Examples of devices could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, and generators. Examples of constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment for quantitative evaluations is limited to total output for a given input.]

**HS-PS3-4a. Provide evidence that when two objects of different temperature are in thermal contact within a closed system, the transfer of thermal energy results in thermal equilibrium, or a more uniform energy distribution among the objects (second law of thermodynamics) and that temperature changes at thermal equilibrium depend on the specific heat values of the two substances.**[Clarification Statement: Energy changes should be described both quantitatively in a single phase (Q = mc∆T) and conceptually in either a single phase or during a phase change.]

**HS-PS3-5. Develop and use a model of electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces and changes in energy between two magnetically or electrically charged objects changing relative position in a field.**[Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include drawings, diagrams, and texts, such as drawings of what happens when two charges of opposite polarity are near each other.]

**HS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to support a claim**

**regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength,**

**and speed of waves traveling in various media. Recognize that electromagnetic waves can travel through empty space (without a medium).**[Clarification Statement: Examples of situations to consider could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth. Relationships include v = λf, T = 1/f, and the qualitative comparison of the speed of a transverse (including electromagnetic) or longitudinal mechanical wave in a solid, liquid, gas, or vacuum (if applicable).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to algebraic relationships and not to include Snell’s Law.]

**HS-PS4-3. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning**

**behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for explaining reflection, refraction, resonance, interference, diffraction, and the photoelectric effect, one model is more useful than the other.**[Clarification Statement: Includes both transverse (including electromagnetic) and longitudinal mechanical waves.]

**HS-PS4-5. Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy**

**.***[Clarification Statement: Examples of technological devices could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology. Examples of principles of wave behavior include resonance, photoelectric effect, and interference.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessments are limited to qualitative information. Assessments do not include band theory.]